UFW - simple firewall

Uncomplicated Firewall is a front-end to iptables. Its main goal is to make managing your firewall simple and to provide an easy-to-use interface.

UFW Firewall

Start

To install just type:

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sudo apt-get install ufw

Check status:

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sudo ufw status

Example of output of command:

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Status: active

To Action From
-- ------ ----
22 ALLOW Anywhere
80/tcp ALLOW Anywhere
443 ALLOW Anywhere
22 (v6) ALLOW Anywhere (v6)
80/tcp (v6) ALLOW Anywhere (v6)
443 (v6) ALLOW Anywhere (v6)

If you want to use ipv6 you need to turn this option in configuration file:

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sudo nano /etc/default/ufw
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IPV6=yes

To restart your firewall use commands:

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sudo ufw disable
sudo ufw enable

Defaults

Define some default rules for allowing and denying connections. UFW’s defaults are to deny all incoming connections and allow all outgoing connections.

Enable default incoming rules:

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sudo ufw default deny incoming

Enable default outgoing rules:

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sudo ufw default allow outgoing

Edit conf file to auto start of UFW service with system boot:

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sudo nano /etc/ufw/ufw.conf
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ENABLED=yes

Allow Connections

The syntax is pretty simple. UFW comes with some defaults for common uses. Our SSH command above is one example.

Enable SSH on default port

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sudo ufw allow ssh

It’s basically just shorthand for:

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sudo ufw allow 22/tcp

If our SSH server is running on port 1234, we could enable connections with the following command:

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sudo ufw allow 2222/tcp

Other Connections

WWW

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sudo ufw allow www

or

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sudo ufw allow 80/tcp

FTP

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sudo ufw allow ftp

or

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sudo ufw allow 21/tcp

Port Ranges

Allow port ranges

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sudo ufw allow 100:300/tcp

Same for UDP connections:

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sudo ufw allow 100:300/udp

Advanced rules

To allow connections from an IP address:

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sudo ufw allow from 192.168.0.100

To allow connections from a specific subnet:

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sudo ufw allow from 123.45.67.89/24

To allow a specific IP address/port combination:

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sudo ufw allow from 123.45.67.89 to any port 22 proto tcp

Denying connections

It’s not very common (and even not recomennded) to allow all incoming traffic and then deny something, but it’s good to know how to deny rules.

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sudo ufw deny 80/tcp

Deleting rules

It’s simple, just add delete before the rule implementation.

If you no longer wished to allow HTTP traffic, run:

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sudo ufw delete allow www

or

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sudo ufw delete allow 80/tcp

You can also list rules and delete them by numbers. List rules and number them:

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sudo ufw status numbered

Then delete rule with number you want:

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sudo ufw delete [number]

Turn it on

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sudo ufw enable

Check status:

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sudo ufw status

or for more details

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sudo ufw status verbose

Turn it off:

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sudo ufw disable

Reset firewall:

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sudo ufw reset

Logging

You can enable logging with the command:

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sudo ufw logging on

Log levels can be set by running sudo ufw logging low|medium|high, selecting either low, medium, or high from the list. The default setting is low.

Example of log file:

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May 11 15:10:08 <hostname> kernel: [UFW BLOCK] IN=eth0 OUT= MAC=00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00 SRC=123.45.67.89 DST=987.65.43.21 LEN=40 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=249 ID=8475 PROTO=TCP SPT=48247 DPT=22 WINDOW=1024 RES=0x00 SYN URGP=0
  • [UFW BLOCK]: This location is where the description of the logged event will be located. In this instance, it blocked a connection.
  • IN: If this contains a value, then the event was incoming
  • OUT: If this contain a value, then the event was outgoing
  • MAC: A combination of the destination and source MAC addresses
  • SRC: The IP of the packet source
  • DST: The IP of the packet destination
  • LEN: Packet length
  • TTL: The packet TTL, or time to live. How long it will bounce between routers until it expires, if no destination is found.
  • PROTO: The packet’s protocol
  • SPT: The source port of the package
  • DPT: The destination port of the package
  • WINDOW: The size of the packet the sender can receive
  • SYN URGP: Indicated if a three-way handshake is required. 0 means it is not.

Graphical interface

You can also install graphical interface for UFW:

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sudo apt-get install gufw

GUFW